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January 2010

(Nerd) ^M Removing control characters using VIM

hat tip Matthew Turland

Have you ever opened up a file using VI and found the following?

<?php
    echo '<html>'^M
    echo '<head>'^M
    echo '</head>'^M
    echo '<body>'^M
 
...

That stupid control character from some other horrid text editor is trailing every single line. And you are annoyed enough to Google for an answer. ^M

Now, hopefully you are aware of the powerful regex tools built right into VI. But in this case, the fix is pretty simple, and we won’t have to craft any regFu. After you open your file using VI, we will then use the search/replace functionality. And we will eventually end up with a line that looks like this.

:%s/^M//g

But there is a gotcha to this solution, so you may need to read on to find out more. And before proceeding, press esc to make sure you are not in insert mode.

First type the following.

 Shift + :

Which should just print the colon at the bottom of your screen.

:

Then type this exactly how it looks.

%s/

Now we need to type the control character. You may be thinking “Jared, I will just hit shift + 6 and get that character onto my screen in no time.”. And you are more than welcome to do that, but you would be wrong.

You will need to press the following keys.

Control + V

Which will get you this printed out.

:%s/^

Then type the following.

Control + M

Which should have you ending up with this.

:%s/^M

At this point you can type the rest of the characters exactly how they look.

//g

Which leaves you with a finished line that looks like so.

:%s/^M//g

Press enter, and you will now replace the ^M character with nothing.

Part 2(kinda): Small search and replace example.

This would replace Dog with Cat.

:%s/Dog/Cat/g

Cat with Mouse.

:%s/Cat/Mouse/g

Mouse with Trap.

:%s/Mouse/Trap/g

So our line to replace the ^M character is literally saying “Replace the ^M character with nothing”.

Clint Michigan rocking Grey’s Anatomy

My wife and I picked up the Clint Michigan album (and by “picked up” we all know I mean downloaded from iTunes) back in June. Clint Michigan is actually a folk duo and the male half the the team just so happens to be my wife’s Cousin.

There is a song on the album that really resonates with me called “Hawthorne To Hennepin”. Like me, Clint also lost his brother, and there is a wonderful lyric in the song that sings “What my brother could have been, thats what I’ve been wonderin’…” and it spoke pretty deeply to me. Because that is a common thought of mine that I will most likely continue to have for the rest of my life.

Yesterday, Jaimi (my wife) was watching a recording of a popular show that she enjoys called “Grey’s Anatomy”, when a song started playing in the background. She recognized it but because of the fact that the song was on a show that averages 20 million viewers, she had a hard time thinking of the band’s name. Suddenly it struck her, “Thats Clint’s Band!!!” and she called me at work all excited. You could hear in her voice that she was just tickled.

Anyway, I don’t plug music I don’t like. But I really enjoy Clint Michigan. And Jaimi and I couldn’t be more excited for their big success. So here are some links below. And if you happen to like what you hear, please throw them a couple bucks by downloading a song or two from Amazon or iTunes.

MySpace

Amazon

iTunes

(Nerd) How to: Setup Virtual Hosts on Ubuntu 9.10 using Apache2 + MySQL5.X + PHP5

I have been working on a couple projects that are hosted on gitHub. As the scale and scope of the projects grow, I ended up needing to setup multiple virtual hosts on my development machine. It wasn’t hard, but the information online that I found was fairly dated, so I created this tutorial.

This entire tutorial is done after entering the ‘sudo -i’ command which allows us to act as the SUPER-USER for the entirety of our terminal session. You’ve been warned.

sudo -i

NOTICE!!! I am aware that we could use the ‘a2ensite’ and related commands. But for the sake of understanding the entire process, I will not be using it.

1) Install the required modules from the command line

apt-get install apache2 mysql-server mysql-client php5 php5-cli php5-mysql

2) Change the directory to /etc/apache2/sites-available

cd /etc/apache2/sites-available

3) If you run the ‘ls’ command while in the sites-available directory you should see the following

ls

Output

default  default-ssl

4) Copy the ‘default’ config to a site specific config. For this tutorial I am using dev.acloudtree.com.

cp default dev.acloudtree.com.conf

5) Make the application directory

mkdir /var/dev.acloudtree.com

6) Open the file with an editor of your choosing. I prefer VIM.

vi dev.acloudtree.com.conf

The output below is the entire file but I will discuss certain parts that we will need to edit.

<VirtualHost *:80>
        ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
 
        DocumentRoot /var/www
        <Directory />
                Options FollowSymLinks
                AllowOverride None
        </Directory>
        <Directory /var/www/>
                Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
                AllowOverride None
                Order allow,deny
                allow from all
        </Directory>
 
        ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /usr/lib/cgi-bin/
        <Directory "/usr/lib/cgi-bin">
                AllowOverride None
                Options +ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
                Order allow,deny
                Allow from all
        </Directory>
 
        ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/error.log
 
        # Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
        # alert, emerg.
        LogLevel warn
 
        CustomLog /var/log/apache2/access.log combined
 
    Alias /doc/ "/usr/share/doc/"
    <Directory "/usr/share/doc/">
        Options Indexes MultiViews FollowSymLinks
        AllowOverride None
        Order deny,allow
        Deny from all
        Allow from 127.0.0.0/255.0.0.0 ::1/128
    </Directory>
 
</VirtualHost>

7) Add the name of the server. This will be the name that you type in the URL field of your web browser (IE: Firefox)

<VirtualHost *:80>
        ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
	ServerName dev.acloudtree.com
...

8 ) Point the Virtual host to the correct directory

...
        DocumentRoot /var/dev.acloudtree.com
        <Directory />
                Options FollowSymLinks
                AllowOverride None
        </Directory>
...

9) Also make the change here.

...
        <Directory /var/dev.acloudtree.com/>
                Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
                AllowOverride None
                Order allow,deny
                allow from all
        </Directory>
...

10) So this is what your dev.acloudtree.com.conf file should look like when you are done. Write/Quite the file and we will move on.

<VirtualHost *:80>
        ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
	ServerName dev.acloudtree.com
 
        DocumentRoot /var/dev.acloudtree.com
        <Directory />
                Options FollowSymLinks
                AllowOverride None
        </Directory>
        <Directory /var/dev.acloudtree.com/>
                Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
                AllowOverride None
                Order allow,deny
                allow from all
        </Directory>
 
        ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /usr/lib/cgi-bin/
        <Directory "/usr/lib/cgi-bin">
                AllowOverride None
                Options +ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
                Order allow,deny
                Allow from all
        </Directory>
 
        ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/error.log
 
        # Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
        # alert, emerg.
        LogLevel warn
 
        CustomLog /var/log/apache2/access.log combined
 
    Alias /doc/ "/usr/share/doc/"
    <Directory "/usr/share/doc/">
        Options Indexes MultiViews FollowSymLinks
        AllowOverride None
        Order deny,allow
        Deny from all
        Allow from 127.0.0.0/255.0.0.0 ::1/128
    </Directory>
 
</VirtualHost>

10a) IMPORTANT! Make a symbolic link in the sites-enabled directory

ln -s /etc/apache2/sites-available/dev.acloudtree.com.conf /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-dev.acloudtree.com.conf

11) We need to edit our /etc/hosts file

vi /etc/hosts

Output

127.0.0.1       localhost 
127.0.1.1       servername
 
# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1     localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
fe00::0 ip6-localnet
ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
ff02::3 ip6-allhosts

12) Right beneath the ‘localhost’ definition, add the following

127.0.0.1      dev.acloudtree.com

13) The complete file looks like this.

127.0.0.1       localhost
127.0.0.1       dev.acloudtree.com
127.0.1.1       servername
 
# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1     localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
fe00::0 ip6-localnet
ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
ff02::3 ip6-allhosts

14) Create an index.php file in /var/dev.acloudtree.com for testing purposes.

vi /var/dev.acloudtree.com/index.php

Contents of .php file.

<?php
 
        echo 'Jared Folkins\' tutorial on acloudtree.com really works!';
        phpinfo();
 
?>

15) Reboot the apache2 process.

/etc/init.d/apache2 restart

16) Now open up your web browser and enter dev.acloudtree.com into the URL bar and it should work!

UPDATE: I forgot to mention that in this environment, I like to configure log files for each virtual host. This is our current dev.acloudtree.com file.

<VirtualHost *:80>
        ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
	ServerName dev.acloudtree.com
 
        DocumentRoot /var/dev.acloudtree.com
        <Directory />
                Options FollowSymLinks
                AllowOverride None
        </Directory>
        <Directory /var/dev.acloudtree.com/>
                Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
                AllowOverride None
                Order allow,deny
                allow from all
        </Directory>
 
        ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /usr/lib/cgi-bin/
        <Directory "/usr/lib/cgi-bin">
                AllowOverride None
                Options +ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
                Order allow,deny
                Allow from all
        </Directory>
 
        ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/error.log
 
        # Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
        # alert, emerg.
        LogLevel warn
 
        CustomLog /var/log/apache2/access.log combined
 
    Alias /doc/ "/usr/share/doc/"
    <Directory "/usr/share/doc/">
        Options Indexes MultiViews FollowSymLinks
        AllowOverride None
        Order deny,allow
        Deny from all
        Allow from 127.0.0.0/255.0.0.0 ::1/128
    </Directory>
 
</VirtualHost>

Just change the ErrorLog and CustomLog names to match the virtual host.

...
        ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/dev.acloudtree.com_error.log
 
        # Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
        # alert, emerg.
        LogLevel warn
 
        CustomLog /var/log/apache2/dev.acloudtree.com_access.log combined
...
</VirtualHost>